En el periodo predinástico de Egipto, hace más de 5.000 años, debía existir en Egipto una población a la que le gustaba la caza, según podemos observar en la imagen inferior izquierda: una de las típicas paletas de ese periodo. |
Lo que más me llamó la atención en este objeto fue en primer lugar el modo en que las figuras llevan adornado el cabello y el estilo en general diferente del arte egipcio. Sólo conozco un caso similar en en el que se puede apreciar el mismo adorno de cabello. Se trata de una de las figuras humanas cinceladas en el famoso caldero de Gundestrup en Dinamarca. (Imagen comparativa inferior).
No me habría llamado la atención esta semejanza de no haber leido una de las leyendas irlandesas más conocidas, que habla de la llegada a Irlanda de un cierto guerrero Golamh, que tuvo que huir de Egipto y llegó a Irlanda procedente de la Península Ibérica. Golamh había tomado en matrimonio a una hija del rey de los escitas, lo que le acarreó problemas. Y he aquí a raiz del nombre escitas un nuevo elemento arqueológico (imagen superior derecha):
un cuchillo de cobre de una forma que recuerda los extraños objetos colgados de la cintura de los cazadores. El cuchillo "The story is recounted in the Leabhar Gabhála, the Book of Invasions, the earliest fragment of which survives in Leabhar na Nuachonghbála, known as the Book of Leinster, compiled about AD 1150 by Fionn Mac Gorman…
The Irish tradition has it that a warrrior named Golamh of Spain took service with a king of Scythia and married his daughter. Golamh became known under the latin form of his name, Milesius, given in Irish as Míle Easpain (the Spanish soldier).
After Milesius´ wife, Seang, died, the Scythian King grew fearful of Milesius and plotted to kill him. Discovering the plot, Milesius fled to Egypt with his sons Donn and Airioch Feabhruadh and his followers and took service with the Pharaoh Nectanebus. He was succesful in conducting a war for the Pharaoh against the Ethiopians.
There were, in fact, two pharaohs of the Thirtieth Dynasty named Nectanebus but their dates are 380-363 BC and 360-343 BC -too late for the accepted date of the Goidelic Celtic colonization of Ireland and too early to associate the tradition with known Celtic service in the army of the Egyptian pharaohs. Irish traditions has it that Milesius married Scota, the daughter of the Pharaoh, and two sons, Eber and Amairgen, were born in Egypt. A third son, Ir, was born in the island of Irena near Thrace after Milesius and his followers left Egypt.
A fourth son, Colpa, was born in the island of Gotia. Milesius eventually returned to Spain. Here he learned of the death of Ith, given as his nephew, in Ireland -salin by Mac Cécht, Mac Cuill and Mac Gréine, the three sons of Ogma, the Irish god of eloquence and learning- and he decided to take revenge by conquering Ireland. But he did not reach Ireland, although his wife Scota did. He was killed fighting the Dé Danaan and was buried in Kerry…"
(The Celtic Empire.Peter Berresford Ellis. Constable. London. 1991 : 43-48)
Consciente del riesgo de acabar en fracaso total he intentado de todos modos seguir por caminos intricncados algunas de las poquísimas pistas que han llegado a nosotros, para intentar demostrar que quizá haya algo más de cierto de lo que nos imaginamos en esas leyendas.
Comenzaré con la siguiente cita, que habla de los libios y del pueblo de los "Meswesh":
"King Merneptah, the unique one, who establishes the hearts of hundreds of thousands of myriads, so that breath enters into their nostrils at the sight of him. He has penetrated the land of Temeh in his lifetime, and put eternal fear in the heart of the Meshwesh. He has turned back Libya, who invaded Egypt, and great fear of Egypt is in their hearts...|
The wretched, fallen chief of Libya, fled by favor of night alone, with no plume upon his head, his two feet [failed]. His women were taken before his face, the grain of his supplies was plundered, and he had no water in the skin to keep him alive. The face of his brothers was hostile to slay him, one fought another among his leaders. Their camp was burned and made a roast, all his possessions were food for the troops. When he arrived in his country, he was the complaint of every one in his land. [Ashamed], he bowed himself down, an evil fate removed (his) plume. They all spoke against him, among the inhabitants of his city: "He is in the power of the gods, the lords of Memphis; the lord of Egypt has cursed his name, Meryey, the abomination of Memphis, from son to son of his family, forever. Binre-Meriamon is in pursuit of his children, Merneptah-Hotephirma is appointed to be his fate...
Meryey, the wretched, vanquished chief of Libya, came to invade the "Walls-of-the-Sovereign" (Memphis), [who is its lord,] whose son shines in his throne, the King Merneptah. Ptah said concerning the vanquished (chief) of Libya: "All his crimes shall be gathered and returned upon his (own) head. Deliver him into the hand of Merneptah, that he may make him disgorge what he has swallowed, like a crocodile. Behold, the swift is the captor of the swift; and the king shall snare him, (though) his strength be known; for Amon shall bind him in his hand and shall deliver him to his ka in Hermonthis, (to him) the King Merneptah".
Source: Pritchard, James B. Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Princeton, 1969., pp. 376-378.
El nombre Meswesh nos lleva al periodo tumultuoso de las invasiones de los Pueblos del Mar, pero antes :
"According to the records of Merneptah (ca. 1236-1223 B.C.), The Sea Peoples attempted to invade Egypt in his fifth regnal year as part of a massive attack from the direction of Libya. In this onslaught the Libyans were leagued with confederates from the north described explicitly as "foreigners from the Sea" -the Sherden, Sheklesh, Lukka, Tursha and Akawasha. The Philistines and the Tjekker are first mentioned as invaders during the reign of Ramesses III." (FI : 1) "… it attempts -(Petries book, The Making of Egypt)- to explain what wrent into the creation of the society which emerged around the end of the fourth millennium BC (though Petrie believed the date to be earlier) and which led to the splendours of the Egyptian kingship, marked by the long succession of the dynasties. In the course of a chapter entitled "The Dynastic people", Petrie develops his concept of an invasion from the east, as one of the essential elements in the development of the distinctive culture which was to flourish for so long. (Continua en la página siguiente).