Libifénices, escitas y celtas.
Observaciones sobre el fresco de Kef el-Blida (Túnez)
Anexo (Parte primera)
Con respecto al topónimo ruspina se da el hecho curioso de que existe en Israel una ciudad con el nombre de Rosh Pina fundada en el S. XIX por emigrantes rumanos. El nombre está tomado de la Biblia, (Psalm 118:22: "The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner" (rosh pina), según la información de la página web de esa ciudad de Israel. |
De no haber sido por la obra del arqueólogo israelí Yigael Yadin (Hazor. Yigael Yadin. Weindenfeld and Nicolson. Jerusalem. 1975), yo no habría pensado en establecer una posible relación entre los dos lugares,pero a partir del establecimiento de esta posible relación empiezan a aparecer datos muy interesantes.
Las excavaciones arqueológicas de la antigua ciudad de Hazor llevadas a cabo en los años 60 bajo la dirección de Yigael Yadin (YY) revelaron templos y posibles objetos de culto, que llenaron de admiración y entusiasmo a todo el equipo. Uno de los más interesantes es el de unas lápidas de tamaño no muy grande, colocadas en posición semicircular, que parecen formar el ábside de un templo (imagen inferior).
|Llamará la atención del lector la estela del centro con el relieve de las dos manos. |
En busca de una explicación se expresa YY del siguiente modo (págs. 43-57):
The first clue takes us to a place called ZinjirIi in the south-eastern part of Turkey (near the north-west frontier of present-day Syria), where archaeologists discovered a city ruled by a local dynasty of the kings of Samal.Fortunately, these kings left behind many monuments inscribed in Aramaic and in Phoenician, a language very close to Hebrew. Most of their stelae and monuments also bear at the top a series of emblems representing the deities worshipped by them. One emblem repeated on all these monuments is a crescent with a full disc inside it, very similar to the one represented on the central stele in the temple of area C. (el templo de la imagen superior)...For various reasons I thought that these images were related to the deity named Ba´al Hamman (or Ba'al Hammon). Hamman may be the ancient name of the Amanus Mountains (in which Zinjirli is located), and Ba´al Hamman could therefore mean 'Lord of the Amanus'. If this suggestion is accepted, then the deity of the crescent and disc was the moon god - and like many moon gods was associated with hills.
The second clue leads us to North Africa, specifically the vicinity of Carthage and Sardinia. This area was the centre of the Punic culture, that is, the late Phoenician culture of the fifth-second centuries bc Here again, we find that the chief, actually the sole, male deity is one called Ba'al Hamman, and, interestingly enough, his emblem is also a crescent with a disc inside it, sometimes shown with the ends of the crescent pointed downwards. What struck us most, however, was the fact that in searching for parallels to the two outstretched hands, the only place we could find them was on the hundreds of stelae discovered in the area of Carthage and other places of the Punic Empire, although a span of a thousand years separates them from the stelae of Hazor. |
What did these hands mean on the Carthage stelae? Did they, too, only represent acts of supplication by the worshippers? I believe that the hands were actually the emblem of Ba´al Hamman's consort. The only goddess ever mentioned in all these stelae in conjunction with Ba´al Hamman, or sometimes independent of him, is a powerful goddess called Tanit, or Tinnith. When presented in full, she is always shown as a woman with both hands raised upwards and sometimes holding snakes (as on the standard); but she is more often represented in a rather schematic manner - a triangle with a cirde on top and the two bands - which has come to be known as the symbol of Tanit. (Imágenes inferiores)
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